Exosomes

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Exosomes

Stem Cell Exosomes

  • Isolated from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)
  • Involved in Cell to Cell communication
  • Natural signals with no preservatives
  • Approximately 30nm - 150nm

Exosomes deliver:

  • More than 200 signaling proteins
  • Anti-inflammatory cytokines
  • Angiogenic growth factors
  • Anti-tumor signals
  • Inhibit cell death
  • Regenerative & healing signals
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) - ON Switch
  • Turn of regenerative mechanism
  • Turn on anti-inflammatory cytokines
  • Turn on angiogenic growth factors
  • Many other signals
  • Micro RNA (miRNA) - OFF Switch
  • Turn off chronic inflammatory cytokines
  • Turn off matrix catabolic enzymes
  • Many other signals

Exosomes are not small cells

  • Exosomes do not contain DNA
  • Exosomes not contain Mitochondria
  • Exosomes do not contain Golgi Apparatus
  • Exosomes are approximately 1/1,000 the size of a cell
  • Exosomes enable direct cell to cell communication

Exosomes are vesicles that act as intercellular communicators, carrying molecular structures in most, if not all, biological fluids from blood and urine to cell cultures. Their constitution is based on their cell of origin’s surroundings, transporting proteins, lipids, DNA, nucleic acids and multiple species of RNA. Due to their role in transporting molecules in body fluid, exosomes are important in regulating intercellular signaling, coagulation and waste management. The storage that exosomes can hold in molecules, nutrients, and treatments offers an optimistic prospective for cell therapy as the vesicles are malleable in being applied to alleviate symptoms, fight illness and regenerate the immune system. Exosomes tolerate medicine and therapeutics, allowing them to be utilized as vessels to transport treatment and nutrients throughout the immune system to provide positive therapy to patients. Exosomes are resourceful in delivering cancer-fighting molecules to target and block potential tumors as they form without invoking the immune system, and induce a number of growth factors to aid in repairing bone fractures. Fibrocytes circulated throughout the body can secrete exosomes carrying anti-inflammatory microNRAs, a microRNA regulating collagen deposition and proteins in an effort to close up wounds. Exosomes are cost-efficient in their production, and can be used as therapeutic messengers and biomarkers to identify, diagnose and predict a disease’s response to therapy. Patient-derived exosomes can help to protect the body’s immune response from symptoms of cancer, and mediate adaptive immune responses to pathogens and tumors by reacting to illness at a wider capacity. They are also the perfect tool for internal restoration since they can carry small interfering RNA essential for treating a number of diseases.

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Exosomes, Therapeutic Application, Production Possibility of Exosome-Based Therapeutics and Challenges in Production of Exosomes Eligible for Therapeutic Application Takuma Yamashita, Yuki Takahashi,* and Yoshinobu Takakura Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University; Japan. pdf 1.5 MB Download
Q&A What are Exosomes? Exosomes are extracellular vesicles first described as such 30 years ago and since implicated in cell–cell communication and the transmission of disease states, and explored as a means of drug discovery. Yet fundamental questions about their biology remai pdf 1.5 MB Download
Exosomes - Mediators of Bone Diseases Exosomes: mediators of bone diseases, protection, and therapeutics potential Bone remodeling is a continuous lifelong process in the repair of micro-damage to bone architecture and replacement of aging tissue in bone. A failure to such process leads to p pdf 848.2 KB Download
Combating Osteoarthritis through Stem Cell Therapies Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disorder which could be distinguished by erosion of articular cartilage, pain, stiffness, and crepitus. Not only aging-associated alterations but also the metabolic factors such as hyperglycemia, dyslipid pdf 2.3 MB Download
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